Case Studies:

Philippines- Mount Guiting-Guiting

Equitable Payments for Watershed Services



This project is part of the wider equitable payments for watershed services, promoted by World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE), and  the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Beginning in 2005, both the Local Government Unit (LGU) of San Fernando and Kabang Kalikasan ng Pilipinas (KKP) have seeded the Cantingas Water Fund to finance watershed management in Panangcalan and Cantingas respectively. The fund is accessed by the Sibuyan Mangyan Tagabukid (SMT), an indigenous group recently awarded a Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT).


Maturity of the initiative

Ongoing. Started in 2006.



CARE, in consortium with WWF and IIED, was granted funds by the Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS) and the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) to implement this project. It aims to establish equitable Payments for Watershed Services (PWS) in selected watersheds in the Philippines, Indonesia, Peru, Guatemala and Tanzania. In the Philippines, the project will be implemented in the watersheds of Mount Guiting-Guiting through the WWF and KKP and in Mount Isarog through CARE Philippines.




In Sibuyan Island, Romblon Province, such watershed arrangements and payment mechanisms are being developed in two watersheds - Cantingas and Panangcalan.  Funds are provided to the SMT, an indigenous group recently awarded a CADT.  The domain covers the headwaters and upper reaches of both watersheds.



LGU of San Fernando.



Information not available.



SMT indigenous group and KKP.


Market design


Information not available.



Information not available.


Payment Mechanism

Payments were made to Indigenous People (IP) households in the form of consumer credits in a retail store in the village center. The women lobbied for this arrangement to minimize gambling and spending on alcohol by men. Every week the women draw on these credits in the form of groceries, rice and consumer items. To avoid excessive drinking, the store allows only one alcoholic beverage per family per week.


Terms of Payment

While financing for watershed management is borne by the local government and KKP, the long-term solution is to have beneficiaries of watershed management contribute their fair share to the costs of watershed management.


Funds Involved

Information not available.


Analysis of costs and benefits


About 95 per cent of the reforestation budget of US$2,300 was disbursed to 43 IP families. A total of 2,503 patrolman-days were logged and US$9,477 in payments was made to 66 families. Of the 82 IP household residents in 2006, 52 per cent participated in reforestation while 80 per cent participated in patrols.


Over 10 months since September 2005, a total of 3,005 trees were planted. Reforestation targets exceeded 112 per cent with 2,464 surviving tree seedlings monitored and verified.



Information not available.



Voluntary patrols by IPs. The campaign resulted in the apprehension of 139 poachers and confiscation of 2,438.76 board feet of timber. The average rate of apprehension was 13.9 persons per month. Interviews with IPs and LGU authorities revealed decreasing incidents of illegal logging which reflects the effectiveness of patrols as deterrence to outside poachers.



Ed Tongson. WWF Philippines.



WWF website: Equitable Payments for Watershed Services.






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